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一、环境

生产服务器有600台左右,有 ubuntu 和 centos 两种系统。zabbix 部署在 VMware ESXi 中,配置为8核16G。

二、zabbix-server 部署

zabbix 使用 4.4.10,mysql 使用 5.7.28。部署过程略。

rpm -vih https://repo.zabbix.com/zabbix/4.4/rhel/7/x86_64/zabbix-release-4.4-1.el7.noarch.rpm

三、自动发现

  Zabbix提供了高效灵活的网络自动发现功能,通过这种方式无需在服务器上进行手动配置便可直接启动对新 host 的监控。网络发现由两个阶段组成:发现和动作。
  zabbix 定期扫描网络发现规则中定义的IP范围,并为每条规则单独配置了检测的频率。请注意,一条发现规则始终由一个发现进程处理,IP范围不会在多个发现进程之间分割(所以慢)。觉得慢可以用自动注册,这个是非常快的。

1、前端配置

配置 zabbix 的网络发现规则来发现主机和服务:

 • 首先进入 配置 → 自动发现
 • 单击 创建发现规则(Create rule) (或在自动发现规则名称上编辑现有规则)
 • 编辑自动发现规则属性

  当 zabbix 发现符合条件的 agent,它会调用动作将所发现的 Linux 服务器添加到相应的组并链接模板。所以必须要定义事件源为“自动发现”的动作。
  在 zabbix 前端页面,点击配置 → 动作,选择自动发现为事件源,然后单击创建动作:

 • 在动作选项卡,定义动作名称。
 • 可选指定条件。接收到的值为"system.hostname"
 • 在“操作”选项卡中,需要添加关联操作,如“添加到主机组”,“链接到模板”等。


2、agent 配置

agent 配置会由下一部分 ansible 批量完成。
这是实际环境中一台agent的配置:

root@xxxxx:~# sed -r '/^$|^#/d' /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf 

PidFile=/run/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.pid
LogFile=/var/log/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.log
LogFileSize=0
Server=10.202.216.20
Include=/etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.d/*.conf
HostMetadataItem=system.uname
Timeout=20

五、zabbix-agent 部署

zabbix-agent 采用 ansible 批量部署到被监控主机。

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat ansible.cfg 
[defaults]
inventory = ./hosts
log_path = /var/log/ansible.log
host_key_checking = False
deprecation_warnings=False
forks=100

# 主机清单采用这种格式:
[root@zabbix ansible]# cat hosts
[test]
10.0.0.1
10.0.0.2

[test:vars]
ansible_ssh_port=22
ansinle_ssh_user=root
ansible_ssh_pass='000000'

playbook 内容(采用 role 方式):

[root@zabbix ansible]# tree roles/zabbix-agent/
roles/zabbix-agent/
├── files
│   ├── zabbix-agent-4.4.10-1.el7.x86_64.rpm
│   ├── zabbix-agent_4.4.10-1+focal_amd64.deb
│   └── zabbix-agent.sh
└── tasks
    └── main.yaml

2 directories, 5 files
[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/zabbix-agent/tasks/main.yaml 
- name: create zabbix related file directory
  file:
    path: /usr/local/zabbix_files
    state: directory

- name: push zabbix-agent
  copy:
    src: "{{ item }}"
    dest: /usr/local/zabbix_files
  with_items:
    - "zabbix-agent-4.4.10-1.el7.x86_64.rpm"
    - "zabbix-agent_4.4.10-1+focal_amd64.deb"

- name: deploy zabbix-agent
  script: zabbix-agent.sh

- name: start zabbix-agent
  systemd:
    name: zabbix-agent
    state: restarted
    enabled: yes

- name: create zabbix-agent scripts directory
  file:
    path: /etc/zabbix/scripts/
    state: directory

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat site.yaml 
- hosts: all
  remote_user: root
  gather_facts: false

  roles:
    - role: zabbix-agent
      tags: t1
    - role: nvme-discovery
      tags: t2
    - role: nvidia-driver-survival
      tags: t2
    - role: nvidia-gpu-discovery
      tags: t2
    - role: lotus-alive-state
      tags: t3
    - role: xsky-cluster-space
      tags: t4

脚本内容,zabbix-agent.sh:
注:ip 获取方式请根据实际情况来,自动发现就无所谓,反正用不上。自动注册就需要注意了,其实建议ip地址从主机清单中获取,那就需要使用 template 和内置变量 {{inventory_hostname}}。

#!/bin/bash
Zabbix_Server_IP='10.202.216.20'
#Zabbix_Agent_IP=$(ip a | grep 'inet ' | grep -v 127.0.0.1 | awk '{print $2}' |  cut -f1 -d '/' | head -n1)

function configure (){
  sed -i '/^Server=/c Server='${Zabbix_Server_IP}'' /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf
  sed -i '/^ServerActive=/c ServerActive='${Zabbix_Server_IP}'' /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf
  sed -i '/^Hostname=/c #Hostname=' /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf
  #sed -i '/^Hostname=/c Hostname='${Zabbix_Agent_IP}'' /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf
}

if [ -e /etc/redhat-release ];then
  rpm -qa | grep zabbix-agent
  if [ $? -ne 0 ];then
    rpm -vih /usr/local/zabbix_files/zabbix-agent-4.4.10-1.el7.x86_64.rpm
    configure
    echo 'Timeout=20' >> /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf
  else
    configure
  fi
else
  dpkg -l | grep zabbix-agent
  if [ $? -ne 0 ];then
    dpkg -i /usr/local/zabbix_files/zabbix-agent_4.4.10-1+focal_amd64.deb
    configure
    echo 'Timeout=20' >> /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf
  else
    configure
  fi
fi

六、自定义监控项

  以下主要用了低级自动发现(LLD),它提供了一种在计算机上为不同实体自动创建监控项,触发器和图形的方法。
  详情请阅读官方文档:https://www.zabbix.com/documentation/4.0/zh/manual/discovery/low_level_discovery

1、nvme自动发现

因为生产环境机器的nvme盘,有时候会发生掉盘,公司需求对nvme盘进行存活性探测。
前端配置:
创建模板→创建应用集→创建发现规则:

创建监控项原型:

创建触发器:

playbook内容:

[root@zabbix ansible]# tree roles/nvme-discovery/
roles/nvme-discovery/
├── files
│   ├── nvme_discovery.sh
│   ├── nvme_disk_discovery.conf
│   └── nvme_state.sh
├── handlers
│   └── main.yaml
└── tasks
    └── main.yaml

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/nvme-discovery/tasks/main.yaml
- name: push nvme disk discovery scripts
  copy:
    src: "{{ item.src }}"
    dest: "{{ item.dest }}"
    mode: "{{ item.mode }}"
  with_items:
    - { src: nvme_discovery.sh , dest: /etc/zabbix/scripts/ , mode: "755" }
    - { src: nvme_state.sh , dest: /etc/zabbix/scripts/ , mode: "755" }
    - { src: nvme_disk_discovery.conf , dest: /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.d/ , mode: "644" }
  notify: restart zabbix-agent

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/nvme-discovery/handlers/main.yaml 
- name: restart zabbix-agent
  systemd:
    name: zabbix-agent
    state: restarted
    enabled: yes

脚本内容(输出json格式的方法比较low,可以用jq工具或者python写吧):

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/nvme-discovery/files/nvme_discovery.sh 
#!/bin/bash
NVME=(`lsblk | grep '^nvme' | awk '{print $1}'`)
LENGTH=${#NVME[*]}

printf "{\n"
printf '\t'"\"data\":["
for ((i=0;i<$LENGTH;i++))
do
  printf '\n\t\t{'
  printf "\"{#NVME}\":\"${NVME[$i]}\"}"
  if [ $i -lt $[$LENGTH-1] ];then
    printf ','
  fi
done
printf  "\n\t]\n"
printf "}\n"

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/nvme-discovery/files/nvme_state.sh 
#!/bin/bash
if [ -z $1 ];then
  exit
else
  cat /proc/diskstats | grep $1 >> /dev/null
  if [ $? -eq 0 ];then
    echo "1"
  else
    echo "0"
  fi
fi

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/nvme-discovery/files/nvme_disk_discovery.conf 
UserParameter=nvme.discovery,/etc/zabbix/scripts/nvme_discovery.sh
UserParameter=nvme.alive.state[*],/etc/zabbix/scripts/nvme_state.sh $1

2、显卡驱动检测

因为生产环境机器的显卡驱动,有时候会发生异常,公司需求对服务器的显卡驱动进行监控。
前端配置:
创建模板→创建应用集→创建监控项:

再进行上面一步之前先创建一个值映射,管理→一般→值映射→创建值映射:

创建触发器:

playbook内容:

[root@zabbix ansible]# tree roles/nvidia-driver-survival/
roles/nvidia-driver-survival/
├── files
│   ├── nvidia-driver-survival.conf
│   └── nvidia-driver-survival.sh
├── handlers
│   └── main.yaml
└── tasks
    └── main.yaml

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/nvidia-driver-survival/tasks/main.yaml 
- name: push nvidia-driver-survival scripts and conf
  copy:
    src: "{{ item.src }}"
    dest: "{{ item.dest }}"
    mode: "{{ item.mode }}"
  with_items:
    - { src: nvidia-driver-survival.sh , dest: /etc/zabbix/scripts/ , mode: "755" }
    - { src: nvidia-driver-survival.conf , dest: /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.d/ , mode: "644" }
  notify: restart zabbix-agent 

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/nvidia-driver-survival/handlers/main.yaml 
- name: restart zabbix-agent
  systemd:
    name: zabbix-agent
    state: restarted
    enabled: yes

脚本内容:

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/nvidia-driver-survival/files/nvidia-driver-survival.sh 
#!/bin/bash
lspci | grep -i 'vga' | grep -i 'nvidia' >> /dev/null
if [ $? -eq 0 ];then
  type nvidia-smi &>> /dev/null
  if [ $? -ne 0 ];then
    echo "3"
  else
    nvidia-smi &>> /dev/null
    if [ $? -eq 0 ];then
      echo "0"
    else
      echo "1"
    fi
  fi
else
  echo "2"
fi

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/nvidia-driver-survival/files/nvidia-driver-survival.conf 
UserParameter=nvidia.driver_survival,/etc/zabbix/scripts/nvidia-driver-survival.sh

3、gpu自动发现

监控gpu的各种信息,主要参考:https://blog.csdn.net/zxycyj1989/article/details/108650210
前端配置:
创建模板→创建发现规则:

创建监控项原型:

按照以上依次创建以下监控项原型:(根据实际情况进行改动)

playbook内容:

[root@zabbix ansible]# tree roles/nvidia-gpu-discovery/
roles/nvidia-gpu-discovery/
├── files
│   ├── nvidia_gpu_discovery.conf
│   └── nvidia_gpu_discovery.sh
├── handlers
│   └── main.yaml
└── tasks
    └── main.yaml

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/nvidia-gpu-discovery/tasks/main.yaml 
- name: push nvidia gpu discovery scripts and conf
  copy:
    src: "{{ item.src }}"
    dest: "{{ item.dest }}"
    mode: "{{ item.mode }}"
  with_items:
    - { src: nvidia_gpu_discovery.sh , dest: /etc/zabbix/scripts/ , mode: "755" }
    - { src: nvidia_gpu_discovery.conf , dest: /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.d/ , mode: "644" }
  notify: restart zabbix-agent

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/nvidia-gpu-discovery/handlers/main.yaml 
- name: restart zabbix-agent
  systemd:
    name: zabbix-agent
    state: restarted
    enabled: yes

脚本内容:

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/nvidia-gpu-discovery/files/nvidia_gpu_discovery.sh 
#!/bin/bash
nvidia-smi &>> /dev/null
if [ $? -ne 0 ];then
  printf "{\n"
  printf '\t'"\"data\":["
  printf  "\n\t]\n"
  printf "}\n"
else
  GPUS=(`nvidia-smi -L | awk -F ' |:' '{print $2}'`)
  LENGTH=${#GPUS[*]}
  printf "{\n"
  printf  '\t'"\"data\":["
  for ((i=0;i<$LENGTH;i++))
  do
    printf '\n\t\t{'
    printf "\"{#GPU_ID}\":\"${GPUS[$i]}\"}"
    if [ $i -lt $[$LENGTH-1] ];then
      printf ','
    fi
  done
  printf  "\n\t]\n"
  printf "}\n"
fi

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/nvidia-gpu-discovery/files/nvidia_gpu_discovery.conf 
UserParameter=nvidia.gpu.discovery,/etc/zabbix/scripts/nvidia_gpu_discovery.sh
UserParameter=gpu.name[*],nvidia-smi -i $1 --query-gpu=name --format=csv,noheader,nounits
UserParameter=gpu.utilization[*],nvidia-smi -i $1 --query-gpu=utilization.$2 --format=csv,noheader,nounits
UserParameter=gpu.memory[*],nvidia-smi -i $1 --query-gpu=memory.$2 --format=csv,noheader,nounits
UserParameter=gpu.power[*],nvidia-smi -i $1 --query-gpu=power.$2 --format=csv,noheader,nounits
UserParameter=gpu.temperature[*],nvidia-smi -i $1 --query-gpu=temperature.$2 --format=csv,noheader,nounits

4、进程监控

前端配置:
创建模板→创建应用集→创建监控项:

创建触发器:

playbook内容:

[root@zabbix ansible]# tree roles/lotus-alive-state/
roles/lotus-alive-state/
├── files
│   ├── lo-alive-state.sh
│   └── lotus-alive-state.conf
├── handlers
│   └── main.yaml
└── tasks
    └── main.yaml

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/lotus-alive-state/tasks/main.yaml 
- name: push lotus alive state scripts and conf
  copy:
    src: "{{ item.src }}"
    dest: "{{ item.dest }}"
    mode: "{{ item.mode }}"
  with_items:
    - { src: lo-alive-state.sh , dest: /etc/zabbix/scripts/ , mode: "755" }
    - { src: lotus-alive-state.conf , dest: /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.d/ , mode: "644" }
  notify: restart zabbix-agent 

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/lotus-alive-state/handlers/main.yaml 
- name: restart zabbix-agent
  systemd:
    name: zabbix-agent
    state: restarted
    enabled: yes

脚本内容:

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/lotus-alive-state/files/lo-alive-state.sh 
#!/bin/bash
ps -ef | grep lotus | grep -v grep &>> /dev/null
if [ $? -eq 0 ];then
  echo "1"
else
  echo "0"
fi

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/lotus-alive-state/files/lotus-alive-state.conf 
UserParameter=lotus.alive.state,/etc/zabbix/scripts/lo-alive-state.sh

5、分布式存储集群使用容量监控

  公司分布式存储集群(ceph)由 xsky 部署,他们有一整套完整的监控,我们这边现只需要监控每套分布式存储集群使用容量即可。

前端配置:
创建模板→创建应用集→创建监控项:

创建触发器:

playbook内容:

[root@zabbix ansible]# tree roles/xsky-cluster-space/
roles/xsky-cluster-space/
├── files
│   ├── xsky-disk-space.conf
│   └── xsky-disk-space.sh
├── handlers
│   └── main.yaml
└── tasks
    └── main.yaml

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/xsky-cluster-space/tasks/main.yaml 
- name: create usage.txt
  file:
    path: /etc/zabbix/scripts/usage.txt
    owner: zabbix
    group: zabbix
    state: touch

- name: push xsky disk space scripts and conf
  copy:
    src: "{{ item.src }}"
    dest: "{{ item.dest }}"
    mode: "{{ item.mode }}"
  with_items:
    - { src: xsky-disk-space.sh , dest: /etc/zabbix/scripts/ , mode: "755" }
    - { src: xsky-disk-space.conf , dest: /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.d/ , mode: "644" }
  notify: restart zabbix-agent 

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/xsky-cluster-space/handlers/main.yaml 
- name: restart zabbix-agent
  systemd:
    name: zabbix-agent
    state: restarted
    enabled: yes

脚本内容:

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/xsky-cluster-space/files/xsky-disk-space.sh 
#!/bin/bash
#Usage=$(ceph -s | awk '/usage/{print $2/$(NF-1)*100}')
Usage=$(ceph -s | awk '/usage/{print (1-$(NF-3)/$(NF-1))*100}')
echo $Usage > /etc/zabbix/scripts/usage.txt
chown zabbix.zabbix /etc/zabbix/scripts/usage.txt

[root@zabbix ansible]# cat roles/xsky-cluster-space/files/xsky-disk-space.conf 
UserParameter=xsky.cluster.space_sh,/etc/zabbix/scripts/xsky-disk-space.sh
UserParameter=xsky.cluster.space,cat /etc/zabbix/scripts/usage.txt

七、钉钉报警

参考:https://www.cnblogs.com/yanjieli/p/10848330.html
先在钉钉群里创建好机器人,关键字设置为:报警。
钉钉报警脚本:

[root@zabbix ~]# cat /etc/zabbix/zabbix_server.conf | grep ^AlertScriptsPath
AlertScriptsPath=/usr/lib/zabbix/alertscripts
[root@zabbix ~]# cd /usr/lib/zabbix/alertscripts/
[root@zabbix alertscripts]# cat dingding.py
#!/usr/bin/env python
#coding:utf-8
#zabbix dingding告警
import requests,json,sys,os,datetime
webhook="机器人的webhook地址"
user=sys.argv[1]
text=sys.argv[3]
data={
    "msgtype": "text",
    "text": {
        "content": text
    },
    "at": {
        "atMobiles": [
            user
        ],
        "isAtAll": False
    }
}
headers = {'Content-Type': 'application/json'}
x=requests.post(url=webhook,data=json.dumps(data),headers=headers)

[root@zabbix alertscripts]# chmod +x dingding.py

脚本测试:

[root@zabbix alertscripts]# yum install python-pip
[root@zabbix alertscripts]# pip install requests
[root@zabbix alertscripts]# ./dingding.py test test "钉钉报警测试"

前端配置:
管理→报警媒介类型→创建媒体类型:

配置→动作→创建动作(事件源选择触发器):



报警消息内容:

新故障: {EVENT.NAME}

报警主机: {HOST.NAME}
主机IP:{HOST.IP}
报警时间: {EVENT.DATE} {EVENT.TIME}
报警等级: {TRIGGER.SEVERITY}
报警信息: {TRIGGER.NAME}
报警项目: {TRIGGER.KEY1}
问题详情: {ITEM.NAME}:{ITEM.VALUE}
当前状态: {TRIGGER.STATUS}:{ITEM.VALUE1}
事件ID: {EVENT.ID}

恢复消息内容:

故障已解决: {EVENT.NAME}
报警已于 {EVENT.RECOVERY.DATE}  {EVENT.RECOVERY.TIME} 解决

报警主机: {HOST.NAME}
主机IP:{HOST.IP}
报警时间: {EVENT.DATE} {EVENT.TIME}
报警等级: {TRIGGER.SEVERITY}
报警信息: {TRIGGER.NAME}
报警项目: {TRIGGER.KEY1}
问题详情: {ITEM.NAME}:{ITEM.VALUE}
当前状态: {TRIGGER.STATUS}:{ITEM.VALUE1}
事件ID: {EVENT.ID}

给用户设置报警媒介:(收件人为钉钉群里任一群员的电话号码)

八、Grafana

部署:

docker run --restart always -d -p 3000:3000 -e "GF_INSTALL_PLUGINS=alexanderzobnin-zabbix-app" grafana/grafana

自定义仪表盘(自己画的比较丑):点击下载

九、优化

  zabbix server 优化,以下配置可能不是适合你的环境,请根据实际情况调整以下参数,结合线程和缓存的使用情况(可以在web界面观测)去对应调整。

StartPollers=75
StartPreprocessors=25
StartPollersUnreachable=10
StartTrappers=25
StartPingers=25
StartDiscoverers=10
CacheSize=2G
StartDBSyncers=75
HistoryCacheSize=500M
HistoryIndexCacheSize=500M
TrendCacheSize=500M
ValueCacheSize=500M
Timeout=20
StartLLDProcessors=50

mysql 数据库优化:

[root@zabbix ~]# cat /etc/my.cnf
[mysqld]
user=mysql
basedir=/home/mysql/app/mysql
datadir=/home/mysql/data
socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
log-error=/var/log/mysql/mysql.err
max_connections=1024
back_log=1024
key_buffer_size=16M
query_cache_size=64M
query_cache_type=1
query_cache_limit=50M
sort_buffer_size=2M
max_allowed_packet=32M
join_buffer_size=2M
innodb_buffer_pool_size=10G
innodb_log_buffer_size=32M
innodb_log_file_size=128M
innodb_log_files_in_group=3
read_buffer_size=2M
read_rnd_buffer_size=2M

[client]
socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock

php 内存分配调整:

# 修改 php.ini 文件中的 memory_limit (-1表示不限制):
# php是集成到apache中,所以要到httpd服务的配置文件中修改

[root@zabbix /]# vim /etc/httpd/conf.d/zabbix.conf 
......
        php_value memory_limit 1G
......
[root@zabbix ~]# systemctl restart httpd

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